Monday, June 15, 2015


'74 Ago Mikhail Bulgakov made ​​a recent change in his great novel "The Master and Margarita" on the interpretation of which is still struggling researchers. In honor of this event, we offer seven keys to the understanding of this immortal work. 

1. The literary hoax 
Why famous Bulgakov's novel called "The Master and Margarita", and what in fact this book? It is well known that the idea of the author was born after the German fascination with mysticism of the XIX century: the legend of the devil, Jewish and Christian demonology treatises on God - all this is present in the product. The most important sources consulted by the author was the work "History of human relations with the devil" Mikhail Orlov and Amfiteatrov book "The Devil in the way of life, legend and literature of the Middle Ages." As we know, "Master and Margarita" had several editions.They say, first, on which the author worked in 1928-29, had nothing to do with the Master, nor to Marguerite, and was called "black magician", "Juggler with the hoof."That is the central figure and the essence of the novel was just the Devil, a Russian version of "Faust." The first manuscript Bulgakov burned himself after the ban of his play "Kabala sanctimonious". This writer told the government: "And I personally, with his own hands, threw it into the stove draft of the novel about the devil ...!" The second edition, was also dedicated to the fallen angel, and was called "Satan" or "Grand Chancellor". There have already appeared Margarita to the master, and got his retinue Voland. However, the present name has received only a third manuscript, which, in fact, the author did not finish. 

2. The Many Faces of Woland 
Prince of Darkness is probably the most popular character "Master and Margarita". A superficial reading of the reader the impression that Woland - a "justice itself," the judge, who is struggling with human frailties and protects love and creativity. Some even believed that in this way Bulgakov depicted Stalin! Voland multifaceted and complex, as befits the tempter. It is considered as a classic Satan as plotting the author in an earlier version of the book as a new Messiah, a rethinking of Christ, whose coming and is described in the novel. 
In fact, Woland - not just the devil - he has a lot of prototypes. This is the supreme pagan god - Wotan among the ancient Germans, the Scandinavians, or one which Christian tradition has turned into a devil; this is great "magician" and a Mason Count Cagliostro, who remembered the events of the millennial past, predict the future, and had Woland portrait likeness. And this "dark horse" Voland from "Faust" by Goethe, who is mentioned in the product only once, in an episode that upustilti in Russian translation. Incidentally, in Germany it is called the devil "Faland." Remember the episode of the novel, when employees can not remember the name of the magician: "... Maybe Faland?". 

3. Sweet Satan 
As a man can not exist without a trace, and Woland - not without his retinue Voland.Azazello, Behemoth and Koroviev-Fagot - a diabolical instruments of justice, the most vivid characters in the book, behind which is by no means unambiguous past. 
Take, for example, Azazello - "the demon of the waterless desert, the killer-demon". This image Bulgakov borrowed from the Old Testament books, which was the name of a fallen angel, who taught people to produce weapons and ornaments. Thanks to him, women have mastered the "art of lascivious" face paint. Therefore, it gives you the cream Azazello Margarita pushes her to the "dark path". In the novel, he is - right hand Voland, performing "dirty work." He kills the Baron Meigel, poisons lovers. Its essence - incorporeal, absolute evil in its purest form. 
Koroviev -Fagot - the only person retinue Voland. It is not clear who was his prototype, but researchers erect its roots to atstetskomu Vitsliputsli God, whose name is mentioned in a conversation with a homeless Berlioz. This - the god of war, who made ​​sacrifices, and for the legend of Dr. Faust - the spirit of hell and Satan's first assistant.His name, inadvertently uttered chairman Massolit - the signal for the appearance of Woland. 
hippopotamus - werecat and beloved clown Voland, in fact, it comes from a legend about the devil of gluttony and mythological beast of the Old Testament. The study IY Porfir'eva "apocryphal tales of the Old Testament persons and events", which was clearly familiar Bulgakov - mentioned sea monster Behemoth, with Leviathan - lives in desert invisible "to the east of the garden where they lived chosen and the righteous." Details Behemoth author also learned about some of the stories Dezanzh Anna, who lived in the XVII century. and possessed by seven devils, including mentions Behemoth, the demon of the rank of Thrones. This demon was portrayed as a monster with an elephant head, trunk and tusks. His hands were human, and a huge belly, a short tail and thick hind legs - like a hippo, that reminded him of his name. 

4. Black Queen Margot 
Marguerite often considered a model of femininity, hateful, Pushkin Tatiana XX century. But the prototype "Queen Margot" was clearly not modest girl from the Russian heartland. In addition to the obvious similarities to the last character of the writer's wife, in the novel emphasized the connection of Margarita with two French queens. One of them - the same "Queen Margot", the wife of Henry IV, whose wedding turned into a bloody St. Bartholomew's night. This event is referred to on the way to the Great Ball at Satan. The fat man who learns Margarita, calls her "bright Queen Margot" and mutters, "some nonsense about the bloody wedding of his friend in Paris Gesar." Gessar - Parisian publisher correspondence Margaret of Valois, which Bulgakov made ​​a party of St. Bartholomew. The image of Margaret researchers also found similarities with another queen - Marguerite of Navarre, one of the first French women writers. Both historic Margarita patronized writers and poets Bulgakov's Margarita loves his brilliant writer - the master. 

5. Moscow - Yershalaim 
One of the most interesting mysteries of "The Master and Margarita" - a time when events occur. In the novel, there is no absolute date on which it is possible to count.Action refers to the Holy Week the first to May 7, 1929-year. This dating leads to a parallel world "Pilatova Heads", which took place in Yershalaim 29th or 30th year during the week, which later became the Holy. "... Over Moscow 1929 Yershalaim 29th is the same apocalyptic weather, the same darkness is coming to the city of sin storm wall, the same moon Paschal full moon fills the alleys of the Old Testament and the New Testament Yershalaim Moscow." In the first part of the novel both stories are developed in parallel, a second, more and more intertwined, eventually merge, finding wholeness, and the transition from this world to the world of the beyond. Yershalaim "goes" on the streets of Moscow. 

6. Kabbalistic roots 
is believed that when writing the novel Bulgakov was not so much influenced by Kabbalistic teachings. Concept of Jewish mysticism puts into the mouth of Woland: 
1. "never asked for anything. Do nothing, especially those who are stronger than you.Sami offer themselves all will. " As you know, Kabbalah interprets the Torah, the prohibition to take anything not from the creator, which is contrary to Christianity, which on the contrary "to ask someone else's mercy" is not forbidden. Hasidim (the representatives of the mystical currents of Judaism based on Kabbalah) interpret the statement that God created man in his own image, so man must resemble the Creator in creation. That is, should work. 
2. The concept of "the light." Light accompanies Voland throughout the novel. When Satan disappears with his retinue, and lost lunar road. At first glance, "the science of light" goes back to the Sermon on the Mount: "You - the light of the world." On the other hand, this context is strikingly coincides with the core idea of the Kabbalah "Or Chaim" - "the light of life ', which states that the Torah itself is the" light. " Achieving it depends on the willingness of the person that will agree, consistent with the idea of the novel, which comes to the fore independent choice of the person. 

7. Last manuscript 
last edition of the novel, which later came to the reader, was launched in 1937. The author continued to work with her ​​until his death. Why he could not finish the work on the book, which he wrote for 12 years? Maybe he thought that not enough versed in question, which has been undertaken, and his understanding of the Jewish demonology and early Christian texts too amateurish? Whatever it was, the novel virtually "sucked" the life of the author. The most recent hotfix that he made ​​February 13, 1940, was the phrase of Marguerite: "So it is, therefore, writers are the coffin?". A month later, he died.The last words of Bulgakov's novel was addressed: "To know, to know ...."
Our Mind

Our mind - it is not a mirror of what is happening around. Much of what we see in the outside world comes from within and is a by-product of how the brain processes sensations. Scientists have found many ways that reveal the fallacy of our senses, and here are some of them.
1. Procedure Gantsfelda
Gantsfelda procedure is a soft touch isolation technique, which was first proposed in experimental psychology in 1930. For this experiment, you need to configure the radio interference, to lie on the couch and using adhesive tape to attach the eyes of half of table tennis balls. Within a minute a person begins to experience hallucinations. Some people see the horses running in the clouds, while others hear the voice of a deceased relative.The thing is that our mind is dependent on sensations and when they become very small, our brains begin to invent their own.
2. Reduction of pain
If you ever hurt yourself a little, take a look at the damaged part with an inverted binoculars - pain should decrease. Scientists from the University of Oxford in the experiment have shown that if you look at the injured arm through the distal end of the binoculars, it visually reduces the size of the hand, as well as the pain and swelling. This suggests that even the basic sensations such as pain, are dependent on our vision.
3. The illusion of Pinocchio
For this experiment you need two chairs and a blindfold. A man with a bandage sits in the back seat, giving a look at the front of a seated person. Then the one who blindfolded, holds out his hand and places it on the nose of the one who sits in front. At the same time with the other hand he touches his nose and begins to gently caress the two nose. After a minute or more than 50% of people say that their nose is longer.
4. Cheating thinking
Lift the right leg a few centimeters from the floor and start to move it in a clockwise direction. As long as you do it, use the index finger of the right hand to draw the number 6 in the air begins to rotate your foot clockwise and nothing you can do about it. The left half of the brain that controls the right side of the body responsible for the rhythm and timing. She can not cope with the work of two opposite movements in the same time and combines them into a single movement.
5. Cheating hearing
This trick can be done with three people, one of whom will be a guinea, and the other two - observers. Also, you will need headphones attached to two plastic tubes on both sides. Ask the subject to sit on a chair at an equal distance between the two observers.Each observer in turn, says into the phone with the relevant parties. The student in this case, correctly determines the direction of the sound. If the change tubes and begin to speak, the listener gets confused and will indicate the opposite direction of the sound.Auditory Localization - a person's ability to determine the direction of the sound source.The human auditory system is endowed with disabilities to determine the distance of the sound source, and is based on mezhzvukovoy time difference. When you change the tube, the perception of activated neurons on the opposite side of the brain, and the person can not determine the source of the sound.
6. The rubber hand illusion
More than ten years ago, psychologists have found an illusion that allows you to convince a person that the rubber hand is his own. For this experience need rubber hand or inflated rubber glove, a piece of cardboard and two brushes. Place the rubber hand on the table in front of him, and his hand hide behind cardboard. Ask someone at the same time stroking the real hand and the rubber, using the same motion brushes. After a few minutes you will feel as if your artificial arm became flesh. If you ask the other person to hit a rubber hand, he feels the anxiety and pain, because the brain is convinced that the rubber hand is real.
7. The sound that can be heard by anyone under 20 years of age
Sound sine wave frequency 18000 Hz, can be heard by anyone yet 20 years old. It is used by some teenagers as a ringtone on your mobile phone, so that other people could not hear any ringing phone. Listen, you can here. As soon as a man gets older, he loses the ability to hear sounds higher tones, and therefore only young people under the age of 20 are able to catch him.
8. The effect of Purkinje
Jan Purkinje, the founder of modern neuroscience, while still a child, discovered an interesting hallucination. He closed his eyes, turned his head towards the sun, and quickly began to drive his hand back and forth in front of my eyes closed. A few minutes later, Purkinje noticed colorful shapes that became more and more intricate.Subsequently, scientists have created a special glasses, which lights up the light at a certain frequency. This stimulation produces a short circuit in the visual cortex, and the cells begin to "light up" in an unpredictable manner, which leads to the appearance of the invented image.

Dreamcatcher - a popular character in modern esoteric culture which is under an ancient sakralny sense has not lost its relevance today.
Dreamcatcher, traditional culture of North American Indians and Siberian peoples.Those tribes, which have been strongly developed shamanism and communication with otherworldly spirits.
In the northern American Indian Dream Catcher traditionally made of willow twigs and was a wrap with a tight network within which strictly individually decorated, beads and feathers. The simplest use of the Dreamcatcher was filtering dreams. That is, the catcher missed only good dreams and bad detained in its network.
In the Ojibwe tribe, shamans did Catchers oval and hung over beds of children, to protect them from evil spirits and nightmares.
It is believed that Dreamcatcher helps to remember our dreams and osoznovat yourself within them. Modern culture esoteric practicing lucid dreaming, says the use of the Dreamcatcher for better orientation of the dreamer within his world of dreams. For this Dreamcatcher should do himself a dreamer, asking each bead its value a particular place in his dream world. Next to these beads is easy to understand themselves in a dream and travel.
Dreamcatcher should be hung in the headboard or close it to spin freely. Feathers are not a required attribute for the catcher, while some Indian tribes believed that feathers may even interfere, causing too stupid, light dreams and dreams.
Wicker, twisted into a circle, symbolizing the life of man. Dreamcatcher sways over the bed sleeping, catching dreams in their networks: poor entangled in the web and die at dawn, and penetrates well to person through the central opening, remaining feathers until the next night.
Best Dreamcatcher is the one that you produce with their own hands. Here is a small guide on making Dreamcatcher:

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