Thursday, June 4, 2015

LOST TREASURES


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Whether it's money, priceless works of art and countless repository of knowledge, the idea of the treasures tickles the consciousness of almost every person on Earth. Fortunes were being wasted in the search for lost treasure, glory, and even greater financial benefits that they promise. Below are the ten greatest treasures, lost to us.  

Copper Scroll (Copper Scroll)
The Copper Scroll is one of 981 texts found at Khirbet Qumran (Khirbet Qumran) between 1946 and 1956, collectively known as the Qumran manuscripts and scrolls of the Dead Sea (Dead Sea Scrolls). He has a special value for the type of treasure hunters Indiana Jones (Indiana Jones), because it allegedly contains a treasure map. This is the only document written in very thin sheets of rolled copper of all found at Khirbet Qumran, the rest were written on parchment or papyrus. In addition, the Hebrew in which the text is written scroll, is different from other scrolls. This kind of Hebrew began to be used only hundreds of years later. In the Copper Scroll describes more than 60 different places where buried or hidden different number of gold and silver.Descriptions of data there are also very specific example, there can be found such phrases as: "in the groove, which is at the bottom of the tank with rainwater ...".  In addition to the scroll has not been found any proof of the existence of these jewels, but it It has not stopped many people from being able to carry out exploratory expedition in the hope to find them. Some scientists believe that the most likely, the Romans had found all the treasures, because they had a habit of torturing prisoners to find their secret hiding places.



"The History of Cardenio» (History Of Cardenio)
While most people are familiar with the famous William Shakespeare's lost play "The victorious forces of love» (Love's Labour's Won), a lesser-known but no less popular play is "The History of Cardenio." The play was written by Shakespeare and John Fletcher (John Fletcher), a man with whom he also collaborated in the writing of the play "Henry VIII» (Henry VIII) and "Two noble kinsman» (Two Noble Kinsmen), was centered on the character of the epic novel by Miguel de Cervantes (Miguel de Cervantes) «Don Quixote» (Don Quixote). Evidence for the existence of the play can be found in several places, including in the list of plays that had to be played, "Royal Ratiu» (King's Men) (acting Shakespeare Company) in May 1613. However, the manuscript of the play has been lost, and it has never no longer seen. In the 18th century, Lewis Theobald (Lewis Theobald), editor of Shakespeare and the playwright, claimed that he had found a copy of the manuscript and to "improve" it, turning it into a play known as Double Deception (Double Falsehood). The manuscript, which is claimed to Theobald, was placed in a London theater Covent Garden (Covent Garden Playhouse), burned to the ground along with the theater in the early 19th century. Regardless of Theobald said the truth or not (and some scientists claim that he told the truth), we still do not have a genuine version of the play's greatest playwright who ever lived.


"On the manufacturing ball» (On Sphere-Making)
Archimedes (Archimedes), often called the Leonardo da Vinci of ancient Greece, was a genius inventor who is best known for his exclamation "Eureka!" And jogging in the nude for Syracuse (Syracuse). In addition to public indecency, he also had a talent for invention, resulting in the appearance of such devices as the famous "planetarium". In fact it was the area that showed the movement of the sun, moon and planets as seen from Earth. Planetarium Archimedes had no equal in its mechanical complexity. Neither the scope, as we know, has not been preserved, although a device known as the Antikythera Mechanism (Antikythera mechanism), is considered to be closely related to the planetarium. Few details on how to build the invention of Archimedes were ever recorded, since he did not like to bother Records of routine things themselves. However, he made ​​an exception for its planetarium, believing that it helps people understand the skies, and as a consequence of the divine. The subtleties of its design, mechanical gears, which competed with modern watch movements and reinvent for over a thousand years old, were all carefully and in detail in his work "on manufacturing industry."Unfortunately, all that we know about the book itself, is in the works of other authors, such as the Greek mathematician Pappus of Alexandria (Pappus).

 Treasures of Lima (Treasure Of Lima)
The list of the treasures will certainly be incomplete without the mention of piracy, is not it? The treasure supposedly hidden on a desert island coconut (Cocos Island) (located off the coast of Costa Rica), rumored to be equivalent to the amount of nearly $ 300 million. In accordance with the original inventory of all the wealth accumulated by the Catholic Church in his time in South America, trophies include: "113 gold religious statues, the statue of the Virgin Mary in a life-size, 200 chests of jewels, 273 swords with precious arms, 1,000 diamonds solid gold crowns, 150 chalices and hundreds of gold and silver bullion. " They were originally deposited with the British merchant named William Thompson (William Thompson). Church officials wanted him swam nearby for several months until subside revolution that broke out in all the colonies of Spain.Unfortunately, for the Catholic Church, it was too great a temptation for Thompson and his men, who killed a security guard in charge monitor the treasure and went to Cocos Island. They allegedly buried all the treasures, intending to come back later after the fever subsides revolutions. But their boat was intercepted by Spanish officials, and the entire crew, except for Thompson and his first mate, was hanged for piracy. In return for a pardon, Thompson agreed to hold officials to the treasure, but escaped into the jungle, once arrived on the island, so neither he nor treasure, no one has ever seen.




 A copy of Maksberga (Maxberg Specimen)
One of the earliest examples of a transitional fossil (in this case, between dinosaurs and birds), Archaeopteryx (Archaeopteryx) has long been considered an important finding, as in the field of paleontology, as well as in the field of ornithology. It was discovered only 11 relatively complete fossils, making each of them extremely valuable. Maksberga instance was discovered in 1956 by two men working in a quarry in Germany, which was owned by a man named Edward Opitsh (Eduard Opitsch). At the time, it was only the third specimen of Archaeopteryx found. He lent it to the nearby Museum Maksberga (Maxberg Museum) to learn. Opitsh who originally intended to sell it, he changed his mind when he learned that he would have to pay taxes on the fossil. He took him out of his house museum where the instance and remained hidden until his death.Subsequently, his nephew tried to find him, but could not. The fossil is believed to have been stolen in the first days after the death of Opitsha. If he ever found, scientists believe that new technological developments may allow them to learn even more about the fossil, because it has never been cleaned properly.




Treasures of the Night of sadness (Treasure Of La Noche Triste) 
June 30, 1520 Hernan Cortes (Hernan Cort├ęs) and his troops were trapped in the capital of Tenochtitlan (Tenochtitlan) surrounded by angry Aztecs, who had just seen how they killed their leader. (In Spanish sources it says that the Aztecs killed him yourself). Late at night Cortes and his men tried to flee the city, laden with an immeasurable amount of treasure stolen while staying in the Aztec capital. However, they noticed the guards, who raised the alarm and started a fierce battle. Almost half of the Spanish troops had been killed during the escape.
During the night, which was called "The Night of Sorrows» (La Noche Triste), Cortes lost more than just humans and ammunition, he also lost most of the looted treasures. It is believed that the treasures were collected by the Aztecs in the days and buried in the hills in the surrounding areas to keep them from prying eyes of Spanish. When Cortes and his men, together with the indigenous volunteers returned to the city, they are questioned about the treasures of all refugees, but have not been able to find even a trace of them. About half of the greatest treasure of treasures accumulated in the Americas may still be there.

 Duchamp's Fountain (Duchamp's Fountain) 
Franco-American Marcel Duchamp (Marcel Duchamp), which is one of the most revolutionary artists of the 20th century, is probably best known for his work Fountain, which was created in 1917. Deciding to challenge what can be considered art, and how people evaluate him, he created a "ready-made» (readymades) works of art that were simply objects that Duchamp found somewhere lying around. The fountain was the epitome of this style. It was an ordinary urinal, rotated on the side, under the pseudonym R. Mutt (R Mutt). By this time, Duchamp was already quite famous and did not want to prejudice the audience influenced the perception of the work. The work was created for the exhibition of the Society of Independent Artists (Society of Independent Artists) in 1917 and was in fact rejected by the Committee, which neglected the fact that he had taken all the work. (Duchamp actually resigned from the committee in protest), Duchamp asked his friends to try to provide some support for photographing and writing about work, but the original was lost and never seen again. He was most likely thrown another photographer Duchamp named Alfred Stieglitz (Alfred Stieglitz). All existing examples Fontana, including the one that is depicted in the photos are reproductions of the artists authorized and ordered Duchamp later for various reasons.

 The remains of Peking Man (Remains Of Peking Man)
One of the most important paleontological finds in the history of mankind has been a number of skulls found in China in the 1920s. They are believed to have belonged to a hominid who lived more than 500 000 years ago, referring classified as a homo erectus pekinensis, otherwise known as Peking Man. It is likely that the ancient hominids were killed by hyenas, the amount of which reached the size of a modern lion, as they were found at the site, which likely was a den animal. After their discovery, they were sent to study and store in Beijing, but they are, unfortunately, has become one of the many cultural losses of the Second World War. In September 1941, due to the fact that the tension in China has increased, Hu Chengzhi (Hu Chengzhi ), a leading researcher of the skulls, loaded them on a ship bound for the United States. However, it is believed that they were lost at sea, the Chinese or the American ship that was sunk by the Japanese.(Some far-fetched theory is that the skulls were ground up and is used in traditional Chinese medicine). There have been various attempts to find the remains, but they were unsuccessful.




Sword Kusanagi (Kusanagi Sword) 
Name Kusanagi means "sword grass being cleared." This sword is one of the three artifacts, which are known as Japanese emperors Regalia (Imperial Regalia of Japan).The sword used during the semi-religious ritual of the ascension, which takes place every time a new emperor is crowned. The sword is a symbol of the legitimacy of the new ruler and allegedly awarded each emperor for over a thousand years. It is believed that the original sword kept in the Shrine Atsuto (Atsuta Shrine) in Nagoya (Nagoya) and is commonly used instead of the original copy of the sword. However, the real original was lost, he sank to the ocean floor during a battle in the 12th century, making the one that is used today by a copy of a copy. Sword plays a huge role in Japanese mythology, and was said to have been found in the body of a snake vosmiglavogo killed in the storm god Susanoo (Susanoo). Two other artifacts that together with sword up Regalia Japanese emperors, are a mirror "Yata-no Kagami »(Yata no Kagami), which represents wisdom, and the suspension of a precious stone", but Yasakani magatama »(Yasakani no Magatama), which represents the goodwill. 






 "The Battle of Anghiari» (Battle Of Anghiari)
"The Battle of Anghiari", which is also often referred to as "The Lost Leonardo" is a fresco, which depicts four horsemen during an armed clash in the Battle of Anghiari that took place in 1440. The mural was originally designed to decorate the Hall of Five Hundred (Hall of the Five Hundred), meeting rooms for victorious Florentine troops.Da Vinci began work on the painting in 1505. It was to be the largest of the works he ever did. Unfortunately, technical problems, which also suffered from the "Last Supper", overloaded da Vinci, and he had to abandon the project. In the following years, another artist by the name of Giorgio Vasari (Giorgio Vasari) was commissioned to paint a new mural ("Battle of Marciano »(Battle of Marciano), which is shown in the photo) in the same place and the" Battle of Anghiari "was lost to history. Recently, however, scientists have found compelling evidence to suggest that this mural is still intact under the Vasari fresco and that she, It may have been intentionally preserved by Vasari. Some even believe that it was completed, and Vasari invented a story that she was partially completed, to draw on top of it. To date, work has been suspended, as local politicians and critics, do not dare to take risks and potentially damaging the work of Vasari (which in itself is a masterpiece), resulting in the possible opening of da Vinci's painting remains in limbo.



 

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