Tuesday, June 16, 2015

Discus Some Ancient Mystery Of Our Wor

Maybe it's not such a mystery. Surely we are now read quite a reasonable version of all this, like about the  island Balls Champa  or pro ball gods . And even the  Living Stones  can be all and do not live, but want something unusual and mysterious something :-)

So, what is this theme with pitchers.

Valley pitchers - a group of unique sites that hold a extraordinary historical and archaeological sites - a huge stone jars. Are these mysterious objects in the province of Xieng Khouang, Laos. Among the dense tropical flora scattered thousands of giant stone vessels. Size jar varies from 0.5 to 3 meters, and the largest weight is 6 thousand kg. Most giant rock pots has a cylindrical shape, but also oval and rectangular occur pitchers. Next to the unusual vessels found around the discs that were allegedly used as a cover for them. These pots were made of granite, sandstone, rocks and coral calcined. Scientists suggest that the age of the stone bowls of 1500 - 2000 years.

Interesting? Let us understand more &

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Until now, scientists could not determine the age of these creations of human hands. And maybe not human. Huge vessels scattered over a large area. As if the Giants were going on a picnic, and pretty fun. It is believed that they were about 2 000 years, but nobody knows. It is not known who created them and why. Even more mystery adds that there is not that close of rock from which made the pitchers. A haul distance 6-ton artifact by mountainous terrain, is not too happy to do.

In the vicinity there are three large Phonsavan site. Getting to them is not easy. Drivers tuk-tuks offer their services, but the hall beneath the sky price. The alternative is a motorbike. Having decided on this, remember that the way you will find not a short and rather complicated.

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A mysterious Plain of Jars (Plain of jars) is in Laos, namely near the town of Phonsavan plateau province (khvenge) Sianghuang. Scientists have found that during the formation of blood vessels refers to 500 BC - 500 AD(Iron Age). At this point in the valley found Bole locations pitchers with 90 seats, the number of which in each ranges from 1 to 392 units. The diameter size of vessels ranging from 1 to 3 meters, carved out of rock and have a cylindrical shape. Many pitchers are edging the hole, why there is speculation that they had cover. Inside and outside of megalithic jars were found teeth, glass beads, ceramic fragments of stone and bronze objects, bone tissue. There are many different versions of the origin of the mysterious Plain of Jars, the most basic are listed below.

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Version 1: GIANTS It is, rather, not the version, and the legend. According to one of the Lao legend, in this valley long ago giants lived in huge jars and theirs. Another legend says that pitchers were made Khung Trung King, after he defeated the enemy. They were intended for the preparation of a large number of Lao Lao rice wine to celebrate the victory.

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Version 2: the trade route to some sources mention that these stone jars were also found in countries such as India and Indonesia. These locations coincide with the trade routes. Due to this fact, there is a hypothesis that the jars were made to traders from different countries. During the monsoon in stone vessels recruited rainwater, and the travelers and animals could quench their thirst. Found beads and other items could well serve as an offering to the gods to rain descended and filled the jars with water.

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Version 3: funeral rites interesting fact that the location near №1 found a cave in which the creation of two artificial holes. Inside, traces of soot. It is believed that the cave served as a crematorium, and the holes were chimneys. Status objects and remains found in jugs, indicate signs of cremation and around the jars - to the graves without burning. The explanation of this fact has several interpretations.

One of the theories. The bodies of the upper strata of the population, may be cremated, that their soul has departed to heaven, and the commoner buried that their souls were ministers of the earth.

Another version. Alternatively, the body of the deceased was placed in a jar, and after some time, when the soul will depart to the other world, was cremated, and after the second time were buried.

The third interpretation. Probably, at first in a jar buried one man, and for many years around the vessel buried relatives of the deceased.

The first archaeological excavations conducted by French archaeologists Madeleine Colan in the 1930s, it is certain that the giant structures were created by representatives of a very ancient civilization and used for funeral rites as storage vessels dust. Madeleine also found in the vicinity of the valley to the cave graves and ashes. According to another version, the pitchers were used to store food and different substances.

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CURRENT STATUS Plain of Jars during the Secret War (1964-1973 gg.), American bombs thoroughly undermined the region of Laos. The territory of the province Sianghuan still full of millions of unexploded mines. Not that many pitchers were damaged and destroyed in the bombing, so also access to most locations of vessels is still restricted and extremely dangerous. Removal of shells - not a cheap process for the poor Lao PDR. In this regard, the valley pitchers country calls to the status of "World Heritage Site", to attract external funding for clearing mines from surrounding areas. Currently (April 2015) considered safe only seven pitchers locations: most visited №№ 1, 2, 3 and less popular №№ 16, 23, 25, 52.

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Despite the fact that revealed more than 400 sites with pitchers, only three sites are open to tourists. The biggest of them has 250 stone vessels is called ground №1, it is located near the town of Phonsavan.

Despite its distant location, the Plain of Jars is still strongly affected by the war in Vietnam. In the period from 1960 to the 1970s, Laos was dropped a very large number of bombs. Since the time of the Battle of stone pitchers keep their scars in the form of cracks in the walls and huge craters in between.

Undoubtedly, plain vessels would attract more tourists if not for the fact that more than 30% dropped bombs have not exploded and remain the Lost and scattered throughout the valley. According to the researchers, approximately 250 thousand hidden booby traps are still in the territory of Laos, and almost every week there are reports about tragic cases involving them.

Maybe someday be able to unravel the mystery of plain vessels, but for now, be careful before you travel to Laos!

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The authorities are considering whether to assign the Plain of Jars World Heritage status by UNESCO. The complexity of the assignment is that Xieng Khouang has been bombarded by US Air Force during a secret war in the 70s. This is the reason that most of this amazing valley available for tourists.

During the bombing suffered not only the pitchers, but the field itself, which today has a lot of deep craters. Collectors all pitchers smaller size for a long time taken from the hills. But despite this fact, the site still have hundreds of copies of which are located five groups. Tourists visit the most available space. It is called Thong Hai Hin. It is worth noting that here is the largest of all pitchers.

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In  Xieng Khouang plateau  in total there are more than 4,000 pitchers, but officially considered a tourism zone 3 area:

  • The first is located 10 km southwest of Phonsavan, it is the biggest, pitchers there are about 250 pieces, and the weight of the largest 3.7 tons. And there is also a cave where according to legend, the Giants fired most pitchers. Entrance fee, in my ticket cost in the region of 10,000 bales.

  • The second site is located 15 kilometers from the city, in the hills near the village Siengdi, there remained about 150 jars.

  • The latter is a little more the second, about 27-km from Phonsavan.

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Numerous posters in travel agencies in Luang Prabang photos adorn various minivanov and buses VIP, but in fact it turned out that goes there is only one bus a day from the bus station. The cost of bus tickets to travel agencies 120,000 bales, it is exactly what we sell under the guise of tickets for VIP BUS.Na the station ticket office cost 90,000 kip and it was a Regular bus, so it is well worth your spare time to drive up to the station and buy a ticket in advance, travel time in order 8:00 with a pair of stops.

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That way, when going to the last post about the  sports car on the salt water  to me, and maybe you just remembered is such an interesting topic, and that's such an ancient thing. Today, this amazing archeological find in the National Museum of Iraq (National Museum of Iraq), and a clay vessel, the size of a man's fist.

According to the modern history of the electric battery was invented in 1800 by Alexander Volta (Alassandro Volta). The scientist noted that when two dissimilar metal probes are placed in the tissue of the frog, appears weak electric current. Moreover, the current flows and by placing the electrodes do not live in the environment, and in some of the chemical solutions. Actually, from this and began work on electricity. However, the discovery of the Baghdad Battery says that invented the electric battery is not Volta.

The object that called the electric batteries take 2,000 years ago (Baghdad Battery), in 1936. was found by workers was equal to the ground for the new railway in the region Kudzhut-servant, to the south-east of Baghdad. It turned out that the battery is in the underground tomb of the Parthian period (247g. BC - 228g. BC).

Let's find out the details &

The find was an oval pitcher of bright yellow clay with a height of 13cm rolled sheet of copper, iron rod and a few pieces of bitumen inside. Bitumen sealed top and bottom edges of the copper cylinder. The presence of bitumen seals suggests that the vessel had once stored liquid. This is confirmed by traces of corrosion on copper, which apparently came as a result of acid, presumably vinegar or wine. Similar artifacts were found near the cities of Seleucia (where in a similar jug ​​found a roll of papyrus) and Ctesiphon (where the vessel were twisted sheets of bronze).

In 1938. German archaeologist Wilhelm Konig, who later headed the laboratory of the Baghdad Museum, in the basement of the museum discovered a strange object or multiple objects (data from different sources are not the same). Having made a thorough analysis, it concluded that the artifact is very similar to a galvanic cell, that is the prototype of the modern electric battery. Soon Koenig published an article in which he argued that this ancient battery, which is used for galvanizing (transfer of a thin layer of gold or silver from one surface to another) gold on copper and silver objects. He also suggested that in order to gain power could bind together several batteries.

Kudzhut-Slave where the artifact was found - a place of the ancient settlement of the Parthians, who were great warriors, but not very development, so it has been suggested that the Baghdad batteries could belong to other people. In addition to its functions, the bank's nothing special; it is made of the time for conventional materials and with conventional technologies. Therefore, it is difficult to imagine that someone could correctly connect the right ingredients to produce electricity. It is likely that the Baghdad Bank is a random result of someone else's efforts. Engineer's main high-voltage electricity laboratory in Pittsfield (MA) Willard FM Gray, acquainted with article Koenig decided to create and test a replica of the ancient batteries. Filling crock grape juice, vinegar or a solution of copper sulfate, he received a voltage 1,5 2B.

In 1999. Smith College students (Massachusetts) under the direction of professor of mathematics and history of science, Dr. Marjorie seneschal made several replicas of the Baghdad artefact. They filled one of the jugs of vinegar, and he gave the voltage 1.1V. This experiment suggests that the Baghdad battery could provide a small current capacity, but what did he use? It is believed that the first known electric battery, the voltaic pile, was invented by the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta in 1800 only., While the Baghdad Battery dates from 250g. BC. - 640g. BC So, if it was a primitive battery, where the ancient Parthians gained knowledge about its structure and how it works? Let's say the Parthians - eternal rivals of the Romans in the east, whose culture we know relatively poorly - could generate an electric current the most primitive means. But why? Indeed, in Parthia, as in ancient Rome - it's what we know for sure! - Do not use electric lights, electric motors are not equipped carts, did not build the power line.

And that is no? What if all the fault of "the dark ages", deprived the historical memory of Europeans? and "the age of electricity" came not during the Faraday and Yablochkov and in pre-Christian times? "Electric lighting there was in ancient Egypt," - say Peter Krass and Reinhard Habeck, devoted to the proof of this idea of ​​the book. Their main argument - the relief of the temple of the goddess Hathor at Dendera, established in 50 BC, during the time of Queen Cleopatra. This relief is seen Egyptian priest who holds a long object resembling a bulb inside the bulb writhing serpent; her head is turned to the sky.

For Crassus Habeck and everything is clear, this relief - technical drawing; strange thing is the light and the serpent allegorically depicts the filament. With the help of these lamps lit Egyptians dark corridors and rooms. Here, for example, why the walls of the premises where the artists worked, no soot, which would have remained, they use oil lamps. It's all in the energy sector!

See how beautiful it looks: while in Pharaoh's palace, you see, like Queen Cleopatra is his friend Julius Caesar through the dark underground tunnels, in which suddenly erupt bright electric lights.

Caesar amazed and a little scared. And Cleopatra, with a light tone of neglect, explains: "It is you, the enlightened Romans do not know this, but we know it since ancient times!"

"Unbelievable!"? you might think. However, the Internet can be found here such statements.

About inextinguishable mysterious bright light sources known in ancient times. Plutarch wrote of a lamp that burned at the entrance to the temple of Jupiter Ammon, for several centuries. On the same bright source of light, which burned in the head of the statue of Hera in the city Gerapolise (Syria) wrote to the Greek satyr Lucian (120-180 AD.). Pausanias (II century AD) tells the amazing golden lamp in the temple of Minerva, quench the burning throughout the century.

In his writings described the same lamp, is the temple of Isis (Egypt) St. Augustine (364-450 gg.n.e.), which could not be put out no water, no wind. The same lamp is working properly in Edessa during the reign of Justinian the Byzantine (VI .n.e in.). The inscription on this light indicates that it burns for 500 years!

In the early Middle Ages in England, it was found a lamp burning with the III century AD. Near Rome in 1401 it was discovered Pollanta lamp that burned in the tomb of his son over, as it is incredible for 2000 years! In 1550 on the island of Nesida in the Bay of Naples at the opening of the well-preserved marble tomb discovered brightly burning lamp lighted before the beginning of our era. On the famous Appian Way during the papacy of Paul III, was opened to the tomb of the daughter of Cicero Tullioloy buried. In this tomb also shone among the many regular extinguished the eternal lamp over 1600 years.

But even if we ignore the evidence of these ancient sources as not reliable, we can recall that in the book "Edipus Egiptikus" published in 1652 in Rome by the Jesuit Kircher, as referred to by this lighting lamp, found in the caves of Memphis.

Among the famous people who were direct or indirect witnesses of the work of these lamps were also: Clement of Alexandria, Paracelsus, Pliny, Solin, and Albertus Magnus. Interestingly, at the opening of the tomb of the founder of the Order of H.Rozenkreytsera 120 years after his death, he was illuminated by a lamp hanging from the ceiling.

Modern researcher Andrew Thomas for many years studied the East and not a lot of times before in India, writes: "During his stay in India, I got acquainted with the ancient documents preserved in the library of Ujjain,?"ADAST Samhita." Incredibly, there I found instructions on how to make an electric battery!

It looks like this: "Put & well-cleaned copper plate in a clay pot. Cover it first copper sulfate, and then wet sawdust. Further, the top should be put zinc plate, amalgirovannuyu mercury. Contact these records will give energy, which is known as the Mitra-Varuna.

This energy splits water at Pranavayu and Udanavayu? oxygen and hydrogen. The battery is made ​​of hundreds of pots, it provides a very active and effective force. " Mitra-Varuna we call today the anode and the cathode. It is known that in ancient India, and knew about the electrical conductivity.

E.Tomas also tells about a godforsaken settlement, located in the jungles near Mount William in New Guinea. Almost completely isolated from modern civilization, this village has a system of artificial lighting, it can compete with the modern city. Random hunters who are fortunate enough to visit this village say that they were simply stunned when they had a chance to see a lot of small moons, brightly burning throughout the night.

These artificial lights were large balls mounted on poles. When the sun set, the lights began to shine the light, like neon lights.

Funny hypothesis, but the truth in all of them the same, no matter volts. Power "Baghdad Battery" is very small. Even if the room was covered in ancient times the capacity per watt bulbs - what kind of power, light glare, not a ray of light in the darkness! - Would make together forty "Baghdad Battery." Such a structure weighs tens of kilograms. "In light of all Egyptian buildings would take 116 million batteries a total weight of 233,600 tons" - meticulously calculated physicist Frank Dernenburg. These figures also do not have a particular faith, but the meaning is clear: galvanic cells scholars of antiquity have come across at every turn. But it is not so!

Surprise and electricians. Even today, there is such a gigantic incandescent as depicted in this relief. And well, what it is not. These colossi are dangerous: after the destruction of the power of the lamp under the influence of atmospheric pressure increases as its volume. Egyptologists interpret this relief is quite different than the amateurs of sensations, confused century masters and discoveries. The terrain is full of symbolism. Himself hieroglyphic mode of writing encouraged the Egyptians to see behind the scenes something else - what is meant. Reality and it did not match the image. Elements of the Egyptian reliefs were rather words and phrases that ought to understand.

So, according to experts, on the relief at Dendera depicts the celestial barque of the sun god Ra. According to the beliefs of the Egyptians, the sun is dying every day in the evening and rises at dawn. Here, it symbolizes the serpent, who is believed in the country of the Pharaohs, reborn whenever sheds its skin. The most controversial element of the image - the notorious "bulb." Even Egyptologists do not know how to interpret it. Perhaps it means "horizon". With regard to the situation in which the relief was created, the workers probably carved it in the light of conventional lamps, refilled, such as olive oil. In the valley of the kings, archaeologists are images, which can be seen working with these lights, you can see how they are given wicks and working in the evening return them. Then why no traces of soot on the walls and ceilings? And here is your true! There they are.Archaeologists have repeatedly found these spots.

Even I had to restore some too sooty tomb. But if the "Baghdad Battery" is not used for lighting homes and tombs for which they were needed? Recall the hypothesis of a German archaeologist Koenig, who believed that the electricity generated by the battery of Baghdad cans, it should be enough for galvanizing metals. Konig found copper Sumerian vase 2500g. BC, a silver-coated. According to him, the coating is applied using a device similar to the found in Kudzhut-servant, but evidence of the existence of batteries in Sumer no. Koenig argued that modern Iraq craftsmen still use primitive technology for electrical copper coating with a thin layer of silver jewelry, because this method handed down from generation to generation since the Parthian kingdom.

In 1978. Egyptologist Arne Eggebreht (at the time director of the Museum in Hildesheim Romera- Pelizaesa) tried to experimentally test the hypothesis Koenig. Using ten vessels, like the Baghdad battery and gold salt solution for several hours scientist plated statuette of Osiris even layer of gold. In such a technical trick, obviously, we have been able to master the ancient. After plating current required a small power and low voltage. Referring to the results of an experiment Eggebreht said that many of the ancient museum pieces, which are now considered the gold is actually made of gilded silver. Skeptical archaeologists say that the very demonstration of the possibility of using the findings as a source of electric current does not prove that it is actually so used. In addition, a layer of asphalt covers the copper cylinder completely eliminating wiring outside.

It is also well suited for asphalt sealing vessels for safety content, but for the electrochemical cells of this type seal is not only unnecessary but also counterproductive, since it prevents the possibility of adding or replacing the electrolyte. According to another theory, the electricity generated by the battery has been used in medicine. In the writings of ancient Greek and Roman authors have found a lot of evidence of the existence of a fairly complex system of knowledge about electricity in the ancient world.

The Greeks knew that the pain can be removed by applying an electric eel, and keep up until the sore limb not numb. Gnyusov, or electric ray, which is located near the eye organ that produces an electric current of 50A and a voltage from 50 to 200V, used as a weapon: with it jammed floating by small fish. Claudian Roman writer tells the story of how Gnyusov caught on a bronze hook and the fisherman's current hit, which has passed through the water and tench. Preserved as information on the treatment of a number of diseases, from headaches to gout by applying a pair of stingrays to the temples of the patient. We know that the physicians of ancient Babylon stingrays used for local anesthesia. Furthermore, the ancient Greeks discovered the properties of static electricity: rubbing amber (Greek "electron"), a piece of fur, they discovered that the fur then pulls feathers, dust and straw. However, although the Greeks noticed such a strange phenomenon, they could not figure out why this is happening, and probably thought it was just something amazing.

However, the assertion that the electric battery was used to get rid of pain, a lot of enemies. The main disadvantage of medical theory is a very low battery voltage, which is unlikely to effectively attack the patient's body, except when not strong pains, although several of these cells are linked together, could give a more powerful electric shock. Agreeing essentially with the version of the medical supplies in Baghdad Battery, Paul Keizer of the Canadian University of Alberta has proposed a new hypothesis. In his thought prompted discovered during excavations in Seleucia, near Babylon, near the battery devices resembling bronze and iron needles. According to his version, the essence of which was published in an article of 1993. These needles could be used for svogo kind of electro - treatment, at that time already known in China.

Some researchers are inclined to believe in the ritual purpose of the Baghdad Battery. An expert on the history of metallurgy research department of the British Museum, Dr. Paul Craddock suggested that a bundle of several ancient galvanic cells placed inside a metal statue, and the believers, touching the idol got a slight bump, like static electricity. Perhaps this happened when they gave the wrong answer to a question posed priest. This surprising effect is tingling, apparently perceived by believers as proof that the priest has magical powers, is elected, so he visited the temple more than others.

Unfortunately, these statues are not found, the ritual use of electrochemical cells is just another curious theory. The tests were carried copies of the Baghdad Battery repeatedly, but skeptics say: today there is no evidence that she ever functioned as an electric battery, and note that of the Parthians - the ancient creators of the device, spoken of as a great warrior, but sources say nothing their scientific achievements. The fact that none of the preserved historical documents of that period does not mention the use of electricity, confirms their skepticism.

No archaeological finds among the Parthian period, no statues, gilded by electrolysis (they are gilded well-known process of amalgamation), no wires, cables, or more complex patterns of ancient batteries. Some researchers dispute the results of experiments with copies of battery, claiming that it is impossible to recreate the same conditions. In particular, the experiments of Dr. Arne Eggebreh-ta held over a fire. According to the employee of the museum Po-measure-Pelizaesa (where in 1978. Eggebreht carried out his experiments with a copy of the battery) Dr. Bettina Schmitz, no photos or reports on experiments Eggebrehta not preserved.

At the same time, skeptics have offered an alternative explanation of the theory of the electric battery. It is known that archeologists found such "batteries" in which the cylinder is placed inside a copper copper rod, such devices clearly can not produce a current. Needed rod of another metal. According to skeptics, the pitchers were vessels for storage of sacred scrolls from the materials of organic origin - parchment or papyrus on which were written some ritual texts. With their expansion from the organic acid, which explains the presence of traces of corrosion on the copper cylinder and bituminous seal found near Baghdad battery was not part of the cell, and a sealed lid that allows you to store the contents of the jug for a long time. Note that the "Baghdad battery" found nearly identical vessels from nearby Seleucia with a known function - they were used to store the scrolls.Yet it is undeniable that the device can function as an electric element. Quite possibly, the creator of this subject did not fully understand the principles that he used, as is the case with the ancient Greek amber. And this case is not unique. Many discoveries, such as gunpowder and the healing properties of herbs that have been made before were able to determine their favor.

However, even if it is proved that the Baghdad artefact is an ancient electric battery, will doubt that the ancient people 2,000 years ago really aware of the phenomenon of electricity. Was it the Baghdad Battery sole finding of this kind, and its only representatives of the creators of the ancient world, open (perhaps accidentally) electricity? Obviously, it is necessary to look for new written or archaeological evidence of its uniqueness.Unfortunately, in 2003. during the war in Iraq, the Baghdad battery with thousands of other valuable artifacts stolen from the National Museum. Today, its whereabouts unknown

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