Monday, May 25, 2015

HUNDRED WONDERS



91. Baalbek
Beirut, Lebanon



Baalbek - an ancient city in the Bekaa Valley in Lebanon, located about an hour's drive from the capital of Lebanon, Beirut. Despite the fact that this area has been inhabited since ancient times (the first settlements appeared here about 5000 years ago), no information on the town does not occur until the IV century BC Then the city was called Heliopolis and was the largest religious center. In I-III centuries AD Heliopolis became a Roman colony, and once here were built many Roman temples. In the VII century the Arabs, he resigned and was renamed in Baalbeck (named after the god Baal).






The ruins of Baalbek hold a grand temple ensemble of the Roman era. This Great Temple (Temple of Jupiter), a well-preserved Small Temple (Temple of Mercury) and a round temple (Temple of Venus). Archaeological and tourist interest are the ruins of the Grand Mosque and minarets.





Modern Baalbek has more than 70 thousand inhabitants. Every year (in July and August) are held in Baalbeck International Festival of Mediterranean and Middle Eastern culture.

92. Forbidden City,
Beijing, China





Forbidden City - the vast palace complex in the world. Located in the heart of Beijing. 24 Chinese Emperor Ming and Qing dynasties ruled from here. The complex was built in the early XV century, a total area of 720 thousand. M2. It is surrounded by a wall length of 3400 m and a height of 8 m, and around the moat, which is called "Golden Water". The palace complex has 9,999 rooms. The complex is divided into the Inner Palace and the Outer Palace.



The basic premise of the External palace where the emperor performed his public functions, meeting rooms: the Supreme harmony, full of harmony and Preserving Harmony. In the Inner palace living quarters emperors, empresses, concubines, princes and princesses. The basic premise of this part of the Forbidden City Hall: Heavenly Purity, Unification and Peace, Earth tranquility. Here are three of the imperial garden: Longevity, Compassion and tranquility, the Imperial Garden.



Numerous elements of the architecture of the Forbidden City are a deep philosophical and religious meaning. So, for example, yellow has always symbolized the Emperor and his power; all the main rooms are grouped into three palaces - a number that represents the heavens, and the number of tiers Pagoda always indicates the status of the building.

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Forbidden City is now under the auspices of the Palace Museum and is open to visitors.

93. El Tajin
Veracruz, Mexico



El Tajin - an ancient archaeological site, located in the Mexican state of Veracruz. "Tajin" means "town (or place) of Thunder" on the Totonac language. Buildings of El Tajin refers to the I century AD.





The heyday of El Tajin came in IX-XIII centuries. For more than 15 centuries, the city suffered many attacks from other peoples living in this region of Mexico, however, is completely captured and destroyed much of El Tajin was with the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors in the XVI century. At that time it was an important center in the north-east of Central America.




The so-called "ceremonial center" of the city includes several pyramidal temples. The most famous of them - Pyramid of the Niches («pyramid with niches").



It consists of six terraces and 18 meters in height. The pyramid is composed of carefully cut stone blocks, forming a series of 365 niches (number equal to the number of days in a year). On the eastern side of the pyramid are the stairs leading to its top. "Pyramid with niches" considered a masterpiece of ancient Mexican and American architecture, and has an astronomical and symbolic significance.

94. Hotel "Burj Al Arab"
in Dubai, United Arab Emirates


In Arabic, "Burj Al Arab" - "The Arab Tower" - a luxury hotel in Dubai, the largest city of the United Arab Emirates. The building was built in the sea at a distance of 280 meters from the shore at a specially poured artificial island connected to the ground by means of a bridge. The height of the hotel is 320 meters (60 floors). The hotel resembles a sail Arabian vessel.



In the "Burj Al Arab" is no ordinary rooms; It is divided into 202 duplex suites. The smallest occupies 169, and the biggest - 780 square meters. meters.




This is one of the most expensive hotels in the world: the price per night ranges from 1,000 to 15,000 dollars, and the price of the night in the Royal Suite - about 28 000. The hotel characterizes itself as a seven-star, but according to the official website, "Burj Al Arab" - a five-star Deluxe.





Need a lift?

The highlight of all the rooms - huge floor to ceiling windows overlooking the sea. One of the restaurants, "Al Muntaha" (Arabic for "the highest"), located at an altitude of 200 meters above the Arabian Gulf, and offers a beautiful view of the city.





The construction of the hotel took 5 years and a cost of $ 650 million. For visitors and guests the hotel "Burj Al Arab" was opened December 1, 1999.

95. Sigiriya
Plateau, Sri Lanka


Sigiriya (from the Sinhalese "Lion Rock") - rock plateau towering 370 meters above the surrounding plain in the center of the island of Sri Lanka. In the last quarter of V century BC King Kasap arranged on a rock a fortress around which were depicted by a water-filled ditches.Around the rocks were split vast gardens, which employ almost the first fountains in the world! At the top of the plateau could climb, passing through the monumental Lions Gate.






Before and after the reign of Kasap on the cliff existed a Buddhist monastery. The fortress from ancient times to preserve the "Hall of Mirrors", lined with porcelain, with numerous frescos, which extend to 140 meters in length and 40 meters in height. The most popular motif Sigiriya frescoes - nude female dancers.

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Now from the giant figures carved in the rock lion's mouth which once served as the entrance to the castle, survived only paws.


On the surface of the rock is still preserved curious inscriptions left by visitors to Sigiriya, since the VIII century.

96. Mosque of Djenne
Djenne, Mali



Mosque of Djenne - the main attraction of the city of Djenne and perhaps all African state of Mali. The feature of this mosque is that it is built entirely of clay. The first mosque appeared here in the XIII century, but in the XIX century it was destroyed. That mosque, which can be seen today in Djenne, was rebuilt only in 1907.






Bars Palma wood sticking out of the building, can reduce the negative climatic effects, including sudden changes in daytime and nighttime temperatures, tropical rainfall and high humidity. Every year in the area of ​​Mali Niger River spill occurs, in connection with the mosque, built on a hill, while novodneniya transformed into a clay fortress.


Entrance to the mosque is allowed only to Muslims. Inside the building is a special courtyard where Muslims can pray in the open air. Most architects believe Mosque in the city of Djenne main creation Sudano-Sahelian architectural style.

97. Bridge "Golden Gate"
San Francisco, California, United States



Bridge "Golden Gate" - a suspension bridge across the Golden Gate Strait. It connects the city of San Francisco and southern Marin County, near the suburb of Sausalito.


Bridge "Golden Gate" was the largest suspension bridge in the world from its inception in 1937 until 1964. The bridge is 1970 meters, the length of the main span - 1280 m, height of supports - 230 m above the water. From the roadway to the water surface - 67 meters.




On average, a day on the bridge passing a hundred thousand cars. The number of lanes in each direction varies depending on the traffic. The fee for crossing the bridge to the south of cars is $ 5, but move in a northerly direction for free. Pedestrians and cyclists can cross the bridge for free in any direction. Bridge "Golden Gate" is also notorious as the site of suicide. On average, every two weeks someone commits suicide there. For more than seven decades of its existence according to unofficial data, more than 1,300 people committed suicide by throwing himself into the water with him.

98. Shangri-La
valley of Hunza, Pakistan



Shangri-La - a fictional place, it is described in the novel by English writer James Hilton's "Lost Horizon." According to the plot of the book, Shangri-La - a country-utopia, hidden somewhere in the Himalayas, and its inhabitants live much longer than ordinary people. It is believed that the prototype of this place is the Hunza Valley in northern Pakistan, near the border with Tibet, because it is a place frequently visited Hilton before the publication of his book in 1930.





Green Valley Hunza is isolated from the outside world by giant mountains. Getting there might motorway, and for many years there is a popular tourist resort, although it is open only from May to October as winter road buried in snow.





Hunza Valley is located at an altitude of about 2.5 km above sea level, and the surrounding valley mountains reach an average of 6 km in height. The inhabitants of the Hunza Valley are known for their warmth and hospitality. Many of them speak in English.

99. Hermitage, the Winter Palace
, St.Petersburg, Russia




Winter Palace in St. Petersburg - an architectural monument of Russian baroque. Built in the middle of the XVIII century by the Italian architect Rastrelli. Palace for a long time (until 1918) was the winter residence of Russian emperors.



In 1880, the Winter Palace was exploded to kill Alexander II, but neither the emperor nor his family members were not injured. In 1905, before the Winter Palace was fired peaceful labor demonstration was the beginning of the Revolution of 1905-1907. In 1922, the entire building was transferred to the State Hermitage.













The modern building has a square shape with a courtyard and facade facing the Neva, the Admiralty and Palace Square. Give magnificent splendor building facades and buildings. The building of the palace has more than 1,000 rooms.



Complement the silhouette of the building sculptures and vases on the roof. They were originally carved out of stone, but in the early XX century, replaced by metal.

100 Petronas Twin Towers
in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


Petronas Twin Towers - a 88-story skyscraper height of 450 meters. The building was built in the Islamic style, and its proposed form personally, Prime Minister of Malaysia.



Construction took six years (1992-1998.). The towers are offices, exhibition and conference halls, art gallery.






The construction of "Petronas Towers" main cost to the customer - the state oil company "Petronas" - 800 million. Some of the costs assumed by other Malaysian companies, distributed among offices a two skyscrapers. The towers are connected by a covered walkway, a bridge, which provides fire safety of the building. Curiously, only one window washing tower occupies an entire month. The towers are living and working up to 10 thousand. Man.



The basis of design is not an easy steel is too expensive for Malaysia, and the special elastic concrete, comparable in strength to steel. Because of this skyscraper has turned out twice as heavy as similar to steel. Due to the design of the tower can not resist, even with the loss of three of the sixteen supporting columns.




Additional security gives Airlift put on a giant ball bearings, as the towers sway and the bridge can not be rigidly fixed. .

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