Friday, January 30, 2015

LEGENDS PERE LACHAISE

Paris Pere Lachaise cemetery is more like a museum: here come to touch the layers of history, look at the beautiful sculptures, recall favorite characters ... Is there special tours, many walk with guides, in extreme cases, at the entrance you can buy a plan with the notation of the most interesting Places




Cemetery was opened in 1804 and quickly became a successful commercial enterprise architect Nicolas Frosch, a former co-owner of the cemetery land at the same time, persuaded the city government to rebury the remains here Moliere and La Fontaine, and then Abelard and Heloise. Because of this cemetery has gained popularity and has become a resting place of prominent figures of culture, science and art, as well as people who have made contributions to the history of France.



Abelard and Heloise

Peter Abelard (1079-1142) was a renowned philosopher-theologian who clarity and beauty of presentation excelled teachers of Paris, then the Centre of philosophy and theology. At this time in Paris lived Eloise - 17-year-old niece canon Fulbera, famous for the beauty, intelligence and knowledge.Abelard fell in love with her, Eloise answered him full reciprocity. Abelard became a teacher and a man at home Eloise, and the two lovers to enjoy perfect happiness until about this connection has not learned Fulber. Last attempt to separate the lovers has led to the fact that Abelard Eloise ferried to Brittany, where she gave birth to a son, and where, not wanting this, secretly married to Abelard. Soon, however, Eloise returned to his uncle's house and refused the marriage, believing that marriage is meant to dishonor Abelard and the end of his career, the philosopher; while it zhelela remain his mistress. Fulber same hatred and revenge ordered castrate Abelard, so as to canon law it was blocked by the path to the highest ecclesiastical offices. Heloise and Abelard love ended tragically: both went to the monasteries. Later became Abbess Heloise Argenteuil and abbess of the monastery Paraclete. When Abelard died, Eloise carried his remains to his monastery to connect with him after death. In 1814, the remains of Abelard and Heloise moved to Pere Leshez.


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Correspondence love nuns and internationally revered philosopher preserved and is one of the masterpieces of the epistolary genre. It has been translated into many languages ​​and readers shaking power and majesty of human passions. From the letters of Heloise in monasticism: Oh, my noble, how little we stayed in this marriage! Criminal, whether I was to marry you, to bring misfortune upon you?You are my God ... you are the only owner of both my body and my soul ... if it's not with you, then it does not exist anywhere else: a truly free you my soul can not exist in any way. What the queen, which is not a princess would envy those of my joy I experienced with you in bed ?! Of all the martyrs, I - the most pathetic. Of all the women I - accidents. The greater was my happiness when you loved me more than anything else, the more bitter my suffering now, after your fall and my shame. For the higher the rock, the ruinous fall from it. Youth and love I experienced only fueled my desire and thereby bring suffering flesh. I do not have your fortitude, and therefore overcome the temptation not easy for me. People call me a saint, but in the heart to me they do not look, and because they do not know that the holiness of my hypocritical. I seem to them for the holy chaste life, but true chastity is not in body, but in the soul of man.









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Edith Piaf (1915 - 1963)


Edith Piaf - I do not regret anything

Edith was born in a poor family and to six years almost blind from deprivation and disease. Sight suddenly returned to it after a pilgrimage to the tomb of Saint Therese of Lisieux to. But her eyes never filled with sunlight; Jean Cocteau, in love with Edith, called them "the eyes of the blind man received his sight." In nine years, the girl earned the street singing. When Edith was twenty, her noticed her Louis sculpt, owner of the cabaret on the Champs Elysees, and invited to perform in the program. He taught her to sing with an accompanist, choose songs, explained how important are costume artist, his gestures, facial expressions, behavior on stage. I mold found for Edith stage name - Piaf ("sparrow"). In tattered shoes she sang on the street: "I was born like a sparrow, lived like a sparrow, died as a sparrow." The first performances were very successful ...


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After the unexpected death sculpt an important role in the life of Edith Piaf played poet Raymond Asso.At this difficult time for her, he supported the young singer, took over the development of her career, she has written for several songs. Raymond acted as her mentor, taught Edith culture and etiquette.Marguerite Monnot, along with that has become a permanent composer Edith Piaf, he created for personal Piaf repertoire that reflects her unique voice and experience. Held its first triumphal concert.Edith was the lover and muse of Raymond, and for thousands of French people - real idol. Definitively linked her fate with the song ...


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Follow the life of Edith Piaf and was difficult, and in many ways tragic. She loved, but her choice Marcel Cerdan was killed in a plane crash. With any of his other lovers she was unable to create a normal family. Only the music scene, and a huge success remained unchanged. In 46 years, Edith was diagnosed with cancer, and she died at 48. During the funeral of singer accompanied more than 40 thousand people. Edith Piaf is almost returned home from home №72 Street Belleville, where she was born, to her grave at Pere Lachaise only a few minutes walk ...


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In the same grave with Edith buried Theofanis Lambukas , her last husband. She met him a year before his death, when he was terminally ill and fell in love .... Few believed at first that true love is possible 26-year old boy to a sick woman "over 45". Yet it happened: Theo loved Edith, almost invalidkoy, emaciated alcohol, drugs, loss. How bitterly joked "it was twice as high as twice the younger and loved her twice as much as she did." Their marriage was happy, but it was short-lived: Edith died at the hands of Theo on the first anniversary of their wedding, and a few years later was killed in a car accident and her young elect.

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Georges Bizet (1838-1875) Life is not spoiled by the successes of the composer: his works are usually not evaluated by his contemporaries, in the best case, they performed a few times and then shot from the repertoire. The constant lack of funds forced Bizet earn rewriting other people's scores, operas transcription for piano. "I work like a nigger, I'm exhausted, I was literally torn to pieces ... I just finished songs for a new publisher. I am afraid that turned out mediocre, but need the money. Money, money forever ..." - Bizet wrote.


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But musical theater composer constantly beckoned. In 1874-1875, he worked on a new opera. The prototype of the main character - Carmen - was to become violent Mogador - Singer, Countess, a writer, a courtesan, which Bizet was passionately fond of her, but then had to leave because of her difficult character and a chronic shortage of funds. Music Opera, which emerged from the pen, did not give Bizet sleep. And then, finally, the premiere of "Carmen". The hall was full of the Paris Opera. Bizet, standing behind the scenes grew cold with fear. Ended the first act: the cold shoulder, liquid cotton.Staging was mediocre, and the music no one appreciated. Bizet was literally crushed by despair, he threw himself into the cold water of the Seine in the morning and came down with a fever. Came deafness, numb hands and feet. Then suffered a heart attack. The composer then regained consciousness, delirium. Exactly 3 months after the disastrous premiere of Georges Bizet died without knowing that created the most famous opera of all time ...


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Just four months after the death of the composer's "Carmen" was an enchanting success at the Vienna Opera. A year after the ill-fated first opera triumph put almost all the major concert halls of Europe. In 1878, Tchaikovsky wrote: "I am convinced that in ten years" Carmen "will be the most popular opera in the world." It just happened.


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One of the posters "Carmen" (author Rafal Olbinskaya)





Columbarium

columbarium in Pere Lachaise buried urns with ashes of several tens of thousands of people. This large two-story square, in the center of which is the crematorium, the appearance of which clearly refers to the architecture of the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul. Only instead of minarets at the crematorium chimney ...I went to the columbarium, to look at the cell numbered 6685, of which we are ahead, but rising to the second floor gallery suddenly saw leaning against the wall and ballet slippers on black marble embossed name: Isadora Duncan ( 1877-1927). What kind of person, what kind of fate ... Isadora dance numbers were similar to the animated scenes of Greek vases: waving a red scarf, easy to indecency Greek chiton, through which guessed bare skin, bare feet, hair flying, free style dance , brilliant improvisation dancer who created any music that was playing at this moment ...

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Say, Isadora made ​​for the Emancipation of women more than any designer and all feminists. She visited everywhere in Europe, America, Russia, and throughout her dance sensation produced. In 1921 she arrived in Moscow to "teach to dance the Bolsheviks." Here she became the wife of Sergei Yesenin, and though their union was not happy, she truly loved poet, and even tried to commit suicide after his death. In 1925 Isadora saved, but turned out to be a rock relentless: in 1927 she died tragically, when the end of her long red scarf stuck while riding in an open car rear axle. Sturdy fabric over the wheels and choked severed carotid artery. Isadora Death was instantaneous.


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In cell columbarium №6685 ashes of one of the most controversial figures of our history - Makhno.Nestor Makhno (1888 - 1934)



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In Soviet times, Makhno called a bandit, he is often credited with grotesque negative traits. But he was not a robber or a clown or an anti-Semite. As a convinced anarchist Makhno always fought for its local "folk" truth, confronting all the power he thought porabotitelnoy for farmers. At 1917m he distributed the land in the 18th fought against German troops and hetman, beat Petlurites. In the 19th with the Red Army fought against Denikin, but then broke with the red and went to the guerrilla war "against all". The 20th he was again in alliance with the Reds, but after the victory over Wrangel Red Army turned against Makhno and eventually broke them ...

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In 1921, seriously wounded Makhno with the remnants of his people goes to Romania, where it is enclosed in the camp. A year later he runs out and is in Poland. There he was trying to persuade the one hand Ukrainian nationalists, on the other - the Polish Communists, but he denies both that and another, and then end up in prison and then in exile. With the help of immigrants anarchist Makhno received permission to travel to Germany, but there he was captured Comintern agents and driven to Berlin for transmission to the Soviet Embassy. On the way Makhno thrown out of the car and surrender of the German police, and then help him to move to Paris. There Makhno continued political activity, even his name is to lead a revolution in Spain, but he was physically unable to implement it because of old wounds and exacerbate the disease. In 1934, Nestor Makhno died of tuberculosis, and his ashes were buried at Pere Lachaise.





Antoine-Auguste Parmentier (1737 - 1813) Parmentier did for France as great a thing that Peter I did to Russia: he taught French have a potato. In the XVIII century in France, potatoes grown exclusively for animal feed, it was believed that it is harmful to people and even cause leprosy. Agronomist Parmentier discovered that the potato is safe for health and has high taste and nutritional qualities.Thanks to his efforts, the Paris Faculty of Medicine announced in 1772 edible potatoes.


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Parmentier had to face considerable resistance of its activities, it even expelled from the Invalides, where he worked as a pharmacist. Then Parmentier potatoes engaged in propaganda among the French, actively using all sorts of publicity stunts, later included in the legend. He gave dinner parties, where the entertainment consisted mainly of dishes made ​​from potatoes, are invited celebrities, he raised the royal couple bouquets of flowers potatoes, etc. King Louis XVI granted Parmentier poor plot of land to the west of Paris, where he engaged in the cultivation of potatoes favorite. During the day, he has exhibited around the beds specially armed guards, attract attention and curiosity, and the night watchman were removed, allowing people to easily "steal" the tubers. An important milestone in the struggle for the recognition of the potato has become barren in 1785, when it was eating potatoes in food helped to defeat hunger northern France. In recent months, the first of the Paris Commune (1795) actively potatoes grown in the besieged Paris, even in the Tuileries Gardens, to reduce hunger. In the same year he was elected a member of Parmentier Academy of Sciences.


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View from the central alley Pere Lachaise. In the distance is the Pantheon - the tomb of the most famous people of France to be continued

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For the year to Pere Lachaise comes more than two million people - it turns out that the cemetery is among the ten most visited Paris, standing on a par with Versailles and the Musée d'Orsay. With so involves people here? In my opinion, it is not only an interest in history and the desire to worship the memory of famous people, but also a sense of beauty, as this necropolis is a true museum of sculpture in the open air. Some artistic and sculptural tombs and will be discussed in this section.



Fernand Arbel (1880 - 1942), architect


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Fernand posthumous desire was always to see the face of his beloved wife. That it will, and embodies the tombstone sculptor Adolph Vansart. According to some reports the wife of Ferdinand buried in the same grave, but reliable data on this subject I have not found.


Climbing the steep path of the cemetery, I suddenly saw a golden domes, as if floating in the sky. It turned out heavenly blue is reflected in huge glasses, which is surrounded by tombstones. Zinaida Dolgorukov (ur.Shatilova), 1817-1883 Faith Lobanov-Rostov (ur.Dolgorukova), 1840-?




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In my opinion, this monument mother and daughter among the most poetic in the Pere Lachaise. Princess Dolgoruky was one of the most beautiful women of her time, she was called "violet Petersburg." Her daughter Vera became the wife of Prince Ya.B.Lobanova-Rostov and passionate collector of jewelry. In what year was dead faith - for me remains a mystery. All genealogical sites call date in 1881, historical records indicate that she was alive in 1913, the site Pere Lachaise says that she died in Paris in 1919, and in Cannes there ... her grave with the date 1914. I would be grateful if someone can clarify these contradictions.


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Another Russian burial - Elizabeth Demidova mausoleum, which is one of the major architectural landmarks Pere Lachaise. Elizabeth Demidov (eq. Stroganov), 1779 - 1818


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Baroness Elizabeth Demidov loved Paris and spent much of his life. She indulged in all sorts of amusements and festivities, was extremely graceful and beautifully danced. But the more she liked to receive guests at home, she likes to be the center of attention, surrounded by a crowd of fans. Inside, Demidova going to crowded and very diverse society: artists, musicians, poets, writers. With her husband she hardly talked, and her monument was built through the efforts of her younger son Anatoly
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At the cemetery, there are many sculptures, which are united by the theme of mourning. On many of those "for whom the bell tolls" virtually nothing is known except for names and dates, but their burial became known for beautiful gravestone statues. Cemya Gamishon author tombstones skulptuor Marseille Gruye



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Cemya Gozales


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Cemya Rossol 

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Louis Sebastian Gurley (1778 - 1815?) About the Gurley is not known, but nevertheless his tombstone among the most famous: firstly it is painted, it is very rare, and secondly it stands one of the oldest cemetery statues - "Allegory of pain" that sculpted with the widow of the deceased (sculptor unknown).

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Ogyustan Jean Moreau-Vauthier (1831-1893), sculptor


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Moreau-Vauthier began as a carver of ivory, but then decided to become a sculptor. He entered the Paris School of Fine Arts, where 30 years later he became a professor. Moreau-Vauthier specialization were allegorical and mythological figures. Work of the sculptor "Pain" was his tombstone ...


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O.-Zh.Moro-Vauthier, "Bacchante". Musee d'Orsay
 



Theodore Gericault (1791 - 1824), painter


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As an artist, Gericault was a pioneer - and the plot, and in the composition and realism he was ahead of his time. His work has been recognized even by adherents of academic style, it has brought glory Gericault talented and bold innovator. It is believed that the artist was the founder of Romanticism in art. On the monument are Gericault bronze relief reproductions of his paintings. On the front side is the most famous painting of the artist - "The Raft of Medusa", written in the wake of a tragic accident in the Atlantic. Then forty miles from the African coast was wrecked French frigate "Medusa". The captain and the officers cast adrift 140 people fleeing on a raft. Only 15 of them were still alive and on the twelfth day of wandering were chosen brig "Argus". The survivors were forced to eat the dead in order to maintain forces in the body. They say the tragedy "Medusa" was to his contemporaries in the same shock as the death of "Titanic" a century later.


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T.Zheriko. Raft "Medusa" Louvre 1819. This painting was the last of the finished works of Géricault. The artist died in the prime of life and talent, falling from a horse


 


Patina time sometimes gives extraordinary marble features, like breathing new life into it ... Bust on the tomb of the family Martel



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Dyubuf Guillaume (1853 - 1909), the artist


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Guillaume came from a family of painters and sculptors, it is not surprising that he also became a painter.He worked as a muralist, painted the Comedie-Francaise, Municipality of Paris, he succeeded perfectly and naked female nature. Perhaps this is why the bas-relief on his tombstone, created by his friend the sculptor A.Bartolome, echoes the plot of his work.


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G.Dyubuf. Diana coming out of the bath. The artist was drowned in the sea near Buenos Aires ...


 



Monument "dead"


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This monument is dedicated to all traveling to another world, he closes the central avenue of Pere Lachaise. At the unveiling of the monument in the All Saints' Day 1899 brought together nearly a hundred thousand people. The upper part of the monument symbolizes the transition from life to death.On both sides of the pair, which overcomes the door of eternal night, sculptured figures of two groups, protested against a living creature final destruction. On the bottom tier of the dead couple and their child over that stretch hands Spirit of life and light.


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The monument also serves as the ossuary, folded inside the bone of the abandoned graves for which ceased to pay a fee. The monument "dead" was the main work of the sculptor Albert Bartolome (1848 - 1928). Bartolomé started out as a painter, but after the death of his young wife he was inspired by Degas decided to create her tombstone, which was his first work in the genre funeralnoy sculpture.



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This work has identified a further career Bartolome: he was a sculptor, and the theme of death has been continuously present in his works. Bartolome created several monuments dead in different cities, a large number of gravestones (one I have shown above). Sculptor buried at Pere Lachaise, at the foot of the monument "dead", which became his best monument
 



The living and the dead

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