Saturday, September 20, 2014

BUDDHIST COSMOS IN THE TIBETAN TRADITION

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Buddhism established in Tibet in the VIII. n. e., when the process of crystallization in the Indian subcontinent have been fully completed.Therefore, the specificity of the Tibetan Buddhist tradition is not in bringing in a fundamentally new elements, and attachment to the Tibetan national soil of all that has been achieved in Buddhism in India.This also applies to the idea of a Buddhist "Space", perceived by Tibetans in the form in which it was formed in Buddhism over the centuries of its previous development.
Buddhist cosmos is not identical with the cosmos ancient Greek thought, because deprived of their natures and philosophical foundations. Spotlight Buddhism moved from the world of phenomena on the inner world of the individual, while the outside world is viewed primarily as a function of its mental processes ("microcosm"), which, in turn, serve as a reflection of some makropsihicheskih phenomena ("the macrocosm ") is not amenable to rational scrutiny. At the heart of these processes are "dharma", ie. E. "Bio-psychic" quanta or elements of "being-consciousness," which creates a diverse mix of colorful and ever-changing "carpet being" called in Buddhism "stream of consciousness" (santana) .
The finished concept of the Buddhist cosmos was formulated at the end of the Kushan period Mahayana Yogacara school, which has had a great influence on later Buddhist tradition in Tibet. The essence of this concept did not come out of the main channel of the Mahayana and was reduced to the idea of internal metalogical unity of microcosm and macrocosm, ie. E. Samsara and nirvana, which forms a "psycho-cosmic" system of Buddhism, only provisionally referred to as "the Buddhist cosmos." 
Thus, the proposed model of the Buddhist cosmos comes from laws, follows logically from the basic axioms of Buddhism, taken as self-evident the bearers of this tradition. The model is based on the principle of "mandala" or "psihokosmogrammy", which is a visual and symbolic representation of the cosmic forces, as it is based mental protsessov.V polzheny two cardinal principles of Buddhism: the idea of the "wheel of life" (bhava-cakra), rotating in the eternal cycle birth and death, and the "Wheel of Dharma" (dharma-cakra), following which you can find a way out of the never-ending circle of reincarnation. The original application of these provisions to our model, as compared with their images and descriptions in the Buddhist tradition, is that these "wheels" are presented by us in the form of a complete graphic schemes Buddhist micro and macrocosm with their strictly consistent internal hierarchy. Thus, the "wheel of life" gives an idea not only of the "twelve-law of causality", but also about all the "three worlds" with their basic units, the corresponding stage of contemplation, and the "Wheel of Dharma", in addition to the idea of "holy eightfold path," organically includes the main provisions of dogma and mythology of Buddhism.Central to the model is the principle of joint micro and macrocosm of Buddhism in the moment of "consciousness" (vijnana), represented by the third "nidanas" twelve-cycle that expresses the fundamental assumption shared by all schools of Buddhism, which may be called the principle of invariance of consciousness, forming the basis of the theory of Buddhist " metempsychosis. " Development of this idea Yogachara school led them to the concept of "consciousness-universe" (alaya-vijnana), facing one side to the illusory and transitory world of phenomena, and the other - to the eternal and the overarching principles identified in the Mahayana with nirvana or "cosmic body" of the Buddha (Dharma-kaya). Last, in terms of creative expression, expressed the universal symbol Om, acts as a kind of "Logos" of Buddhism, while the "consciousness-universe" (alaya-vijnana) resembles the "Sofia" in a number of Gnostic systems, because being outside of time, it does, however, feature the creative hronogennogo factor, as a kind of "consciousness lens" through which the connection between the two planes of the Buddhist cosmos. According to this model, the "consciousness-universe" lies at the intersection of the two sectors, educated mind cut Buddhist micro and macrocosm. The resultant figure is two diamond-shaped "pyramid of consciousness" are in relation to each other in the position of the mirror symmetry. Each of the sectors this figure is divided into four small sub-sector, which, in conjunction with them, represent the five integral parts of "individual" (the five aggregates) and "space" (the five Dhyani Buddhas) consciousness. Based on the foregoing, the process of evolution and involution of the Buddhist cosmos can be represented as an emanation of a five-rays "space spectrum" (ie,. K. Every Dhyani-Buddha has its own color), which, after passing through the "lens of consciousness", are scattered by the "five aggregates" ( panca-skandha) or aggregates profane existence and being collected in focus (ie, sublimated in the soteriological process), once again brought to the five Dhyani Buddhas in its mirror image. Dialectical nature of this process expresses a universal syllable HUM - the symbol "imperishable body" (Vajra-kaya) as the integral of the five wisdoms of Buddhist macrocosm, four of which (in time sequence corresponding Dhyani Buddhas) are arranged crosswise emaniruya of the fifth, the central source, personified by our model (in accordance with the tradition of ancient Tibetan school ninmaba) in the image of Dhyani Buddha Vairocana.
During this process, the individual consciousness through all the steps of an imaginary "three worlds" (ie the stairs of his own consciousness), until it reaches a climax in the center of "wheel of life", corresponding to the vertex of the "world tree" as the "axis of the world" (axis mundi), permeating all levels of life, up to the mountain "Meru" inclusive. Following the principles of Tibetan yoga, this movement is carried out by merging the active life of the consciousness as the manifestation of the solar machismo, with a hidden life force of the subconscious, as a manifestation of the lunar feminine aspect of life. The combination of these principles, in its sublimated plan symbolizes the unity of compassion (karuna) and wisdom (prajna) as the eternal principles of existence. Dynamic polarity of these principles at the level of "makropsihiki" is expressed in the fact that each of the five Dhyani Buddhas has its the feminine, acted as a personified wisdom. For example, "psihokosmicheskie" processes in Buddhism can be represented as the divergence and convergence of male and female in terms of "rightism-leftism" Buddhist micro and macrocosm. Implementation of these principles of unity corresponds to the total output from all spheres of "wheel of life" and the transition to another "dimension", symbolized by the left pyramid of our model. One of the Sanskrit terms that characterize such a state as a result of distance traveled, is buddha-bhumi, which corresponds to the Tibetan sans-rgyas-kyi-sa and is close in meaning to the Greek ??????? . A detailed analysis of mental states that accompany the "ladder of contemplation" (dhyana), leading to this goal, is given in the famous treatise "Abhisamayalankara", belonging to the school of Yogacara and is particularly popular in Tibet and Mongolia. In accordance with this work, 10 bhumi (bhumi) and 10 paramitas (paramita) bodhisattvayany can be clearly assigned to the relevant levels of the "three worlds" of our model.
Thus, the problem of ordering space in Buddhism comes to the problem of consciousness and the ordering associated with the task of reducing chaotic consciousness towards improving its organization. With complete victory over the centrifugal centripetal tendencies entropy in "Dharma field of consciousness" becomes equal to zero, symbolizing the "emptiness" (sunya) of all its constituent dharmas as their transition to a qualitatively new state. In an effort to formulate a mechanism for such a process, Yogacara introduced idea of "absolute element" (gotra, Tib. Rigs), due to the latent energy of which is carried out "catharsis" as transformation "vosmisostavnogo consciousness" (alaya-vijnana) in the "three body" and " five wisdoms "Buddhist macrocosm.
peculiarity of this model is that almost all of its components are tightly linked and organically articulated system that reflects the dynamic aspect of the processes described, the Hinayana, under this system, acts as a special case of the Mahayana doctrine. The author's knowledge, this paper is the first attempt to introduce the Buddhist concept of the world as a model, expressed graphically on a plane in two-dimensional space. 

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